Future Scenarios of Power System and Infrastructure in the United States

Quiz Question

1. Electrification is the shift from non-electric to electric sources of energy ______________ consumption, is an emerging trend that could have major implications for global energy systems.
at the point of final
at the beginning of
2. The Electrification Futures Study (EFS) is a multiyear collaborative study designed _______ the potential impacts that could arise if widespread electrification occurs in the United States.
To assess
To reduce
3. Electrification drives the sustained deployment of renewable energy and natural gas generators in all regions and, in turn, increases generation from these sources; the corresponding expansion of long-distance transmission capacity is correlated with growth in renewable energy sources.
True
False
4.

Figure ES-1 is:

Major highways and interstates across America.
Electrical load requirements in all regions by 2050
5.

Electrification inherently increases the reliance of demand sectors on electricity, and it could offer enhanced opportunities for more-active participation from flexible loads in the planning and operations of the electricity system.

True
False
6. In this course which of the following questions have been addressed?
What are the impacts of electrification on the mix, magnitude, location, and timing of new bulk power system infrastructure development in the United States?
How could widespread end-use electrification impact the generation mix and utilization of different classes of generators and transmission assets?
What are the impacts of electrification on costs, energy consumption, and air emissions for the electric and broader energy systems?
All of the above
7. In Figure 1. ReEDS spatial structure and network representation, the blue lines represent:
Different counties in each state under the grid coverage.
The existing transmission interface capacities between model balancing areas.
8. The Rapid end-use technology advancement trajectory is consistent with futures in which
R&D investment spurs technology innovations, manufacturing scale-up increases production efficiencies, and consumer demand and public policy yields technology learning.
electric technology progress follows current trends without major advances.
9. In figure 7, Solid lines between balancing areas depict inter-regional, long-distance transmission capacity, while shading within a given balancing area depicts intra-regional, spur-line transmission capacity that is added after 2018.
True
False
10. In ReEDS, demand-side flexibility is modeled as “load shifting,” which can be thought of as the ability of a central planner to control or ___________ for a fraction of a subsector’s electrical load to move from one hour to another
Provide incentives
Charge penalties
11. Figure 19 shows
Present value of total electric system cost for Reference and High electrification across three levels of demand-side flexibility
Flexibility of the system during power surge
12. In contrast to the capacity, generation, and bulk electricity price results explored above, system costs for both the bulk electric and total energy systems are typically __________ to electrification than they are to fuel, technology, and system constraint assumptions.
More sensitive
Less sensitive
13.

The five key finding of this course are:

  1. Electrification drives the sustained deployment of renewable energy and natural gas generators in all regions and, in turn, increases generation from these sources; the corresponding expansion of long-distance transmission capacity is correlated with growth in renewable energy sources.
  2. Electrification inherently increases the reliance of demand sectors on electricity, and it could offer enhanced opportunities for more-active participation from flexible loads in the planning and operations of the electricity system.
  3. There are abundant resources in the United States with similar costs to meet potential electrification-driven growth in electricity demand.
  4. Considering the entire energy sector, the net system cost impact of electrification depends most significantly on future advancements in the cost and efficiency of electric end-use technologies.
  5. Electrification reduces direct energy consumption and emissions in the demand sectors and shifts them into the power sector, the net effect of which is energy system-wide reductions in both.
True
False
14. Which one of the following research topics is recommended for future?
Electrification’s impact on the financial attractiveness of distributed energy resources (DERs) and energy efficiency
Distribution system impacts
Utility business model impacts
Implications for the manufacturing and natural gas sectors
All of the above
15. This report, the fifth in the series, presents an analysis of the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the evolution of the U.S. electricity system.
True
False